History - Chiclana de Segura

History of Chiclana de Segura

The name of Chiclana derives from Caeciliana, which alludes to a Roman-era villa or farmhouse owned by Caecilius. Conquered by the Crown of Castile in 1226, the territory belonged to the Order of Santiago, who repopulated it. It was integrated into the priory of Villanueva de Los Infantes.

Chiclana de Segura is cited in the chronicles of both Archbishop Ximénez de Rada and Fernando III, who conquered it, together with its fortress, around 1235. The King handed it over to his chancellor in exchange for Jandulilla, but shortly afterwards he recovered it and transferred it to the Order of Santiago, along with many other towns in the area, a transfer that was confirmed by Alfonso X in 1254.

The town became the head of the Montizon-Chiclana Encomienda de Santiago. For a long time, its Commander was the famous warrior-poet, Jorge Manrique, who was one of the thirteen knights who formed the leading chapter of the Order of Santiago. In 1833, after the territorial reform of Javier de Burgos, it became part of the new province of Jaén, coming from the old province of La Mancha.

Because the town was devastated in the War of Independence, there are hardly any ancient monuments preserved. At a high point, jutting out from the steep streets and giving shelter to the mosaic of whitewashed houses, are the ruins of a castle shelter, the monumental complex of Chiclana. This has become an obligatory historical reference point for the early ups and downs of the magical medieval municipality. The population centre which formed around the rock surrounding the castle, and gradually spread to the foot of the nearby hill, is known as La Atalaya. Between both hills the plaza was established, intended as the religious and political centre of the town. There, between the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the Iglesia de San Pedro Apóstol was built.


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